“The Amelioration of the ‘Visitor Effect’ using Persuasive Technology: an Interaction Design”

 

  May 2008

 

 

 

 

Project Brief (PDE4210)

 

 

 

 

Interaction Design Centre

School of Computing Science

Middlesex University

The Burroughs

London NW4 4BT, UK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dean Meadows (Bsc Hons)


 

 


 

Contents

 

 

Executive Summary

 

Introduction

 

Literature Review and Rationale

 

§         User Centred Design

§         Exhibit Design

§         Persuasive Technology

§         Environmental Factors and Gorilla Behaviour

 

Research Design

 

§         Design Brief - The purposes of this Brief

§         Design Concepts - Participants Goals

§         Design Specifications/Considerations

§         Design Development

 

Possible Content and Features

 

Network/Infrastructure Issues

 

User Wait Times and User Feedback Considerations

 

Conclusions/Summary

 

References

 

Internet References

 

APPENDICES

 

WORKING METHOD (Pre-Design Research)

 

§         Stage 1

§         Stage 2

§         Stage 3

 

Results & Analysis

 


 

 

PROJECT BRIEF

 

 

Executive Summary

 

In March 2007 London Zoo unveiled it‘s new £5.3m Gorilla Kingdom exhibit to the public, which quickly became the centre piece of the Zoo, attracting as many as 18,000 people on the busiest public Bank Holiday of the year. However despite its unparalleled commercial success, the keeping staff and resident Animal Behaviourist began to identify reasonably common undesirable stress related behaviour, (Lukas et al, 1999) from the 3 captive Western Lowland Gorillas, each primate displaying individual reactions to their new and unfamiliar environment. Following these apprehensions Middlesex University’s Interaction Design centre was consulted by the Director of ZSL who encouraged preliminary design research to be carried out. This initial research highlighted some important areas of affordance and feedback (Norman, 1988) but also brought the interactive relationship of the resident Gorillas with the Zoo visitor into sharp focus and accordingly the key topic of this project.

London Zoo has also recently introduced the Node Explorer a robust market leading digital device, with the ability to draw the visitor into an immersive and guiding experience when optimal content is delivered at key points around the Zoo. The overall finding of our initial research had suggested the use of digital immersion as a calming and engaging form of Persuasive Technology (Fogg, 2003). A digital guide could instruct, entertain, inform and immerse making possible inroads into undesirable visitor behaviour monitored and subsequently recorded within the Gorilla Kingdom exhibit, this problematic relationship is known as the ‘visitor effect’ (Mitchell & Hosey; 2005). The extension of this finding was also supported by the observation of the Zoo visitor’s concerted use of their mobile phones and personal digital devices. Orange Plc, the international mobile phone operator has provided not only hardware but also continuing advice, support and interest in this innovative project. The ability of a digital device to provide this kind of immersion and persuasion is clearly dependent on digital content and its ability to elicit and maintain the Zoo visitor’s interest. An emerging technology called Augmented Reality will therefore be provided by metaio (GmbH) an internationally renowned specialist in AR who has recently and successfully provided their technology on mobile digital devices for a museum guide at the Louvre in Paris. The principle designer at Poke London, another internationally renowned digital agency has also provided advice and guidance, particularly regarding the Augmented Reality aspect and has expressed an interest in this project regarding digital content and production. After consulting a cross section of exhibit volunteers, keepers and senior management a particular age range emerged as the target group most likely to display undesirable behaviour at Zoo’s. A User Centred Design philosophy, (Norman, 1988) was therefore adopted and a Paper Prototyping (Rogers et al, 2007) research exercise employing a small group of young people aged between Ten and Fifteen years of age including 3 boys and 2 girls was implemented. The ideas and views of these potential stakeholders or beneficiaries of the guide spent a full day at the Zoo delivering their detailed thoughts and feelings regarding the content and interactivity that they would most like to see on a digital guide.

This Project aims to set out the foundations and working method to design a (UCD) interactive guide prototype for the Gorilla Kingdom exhibit with Augmented Reality examples strategically placed within engaging digital content, together with vital multi-lingual visitor instructions, conservation message’s and immersive content, aimed to ameliorate the ‘visitor effect’ on the resident Gorillas via an increasing multitude of suitable handheld digital devices.

This brief also aims to pave the way forward for further research into the amelioration of the ‘visitor effect’ on all non-human inhabitants at London Zoo and the possible stress relieving benefits of an engaging, instructional, immersive and multi-lingual interactive digital guide leading to a much preferred symbiotic relationship between visitor and (non-human) Zoo residents.

 

 

 

 

“Encouraging visitors to observe in quiet awe is the ideal solution”, (Coe 1985)

 

Introduction

 

Internet Links and References are shown in Blue

The original design research was carried out by the students and course Director of the Msc in Interaction Design at Middlesex University which generated a comprehensive presentation to various members of the keeping staff and management responsible for Gorilla Kingdom and other smaller exhibits within this self contained area of the Zoo. The ZSL Director had invited our design team to investigate, from an Interaction Design perspective, issues which had been identified by the outstanding keeping staff, exhibit management and Zoo’s resident Animal Behaviourist. These somewhat familiar stress related behaviour’s are relatively common within captive primates, approximately 65% of captive Gorillas engage in regurgitation and reingestion (R/R) of food items on a regular basis, (Lukas et al, 1999)

Lukas concludes this Behavioural research by stating that “These findings reinforce the idea that R/R may be an adaptive response by normal animals to “abnormal” environmental elements.”, Darwin once described anger as an adaptive response to a blocked goal, which may help to put this undesirable activity into some kind of context.

The initial presentation also took into account current issues within Zoo exhibit design where publications from the professional and academic communities were referenced and incorporated into our presentation and accordingly this current project brief. This area proved to be a prolific source of relevant information which included current issues within Zoological areas of study and helped to determine the future direction of this project.

Jon Coe’s 2007 paper entitled; Zoo 2007: “And the Monkeys Run the Monkey House” has considerably influenced this current research in its original conception and in its future direction, the quote from Coe (1985), “Encouraging visitors to observe in quiet awe is the ideal solution” has also served as a Mission Statement for the entire project.

Node Explorer (5). London Zoo’s commissioning of the Node Explorer presented an opportunity to extend the main finding of the initial design research on to a Ubiquitous platform specifically designed for the purpose.

The Node platform is ideally suited for all aspects of content design and its delivery. This project will rely heavily on the technical expertise and experience of the Node team responsible for operations at London Zoo. Node have already produced guidelines for content production which have been duly noted and to a certain extent the Node methodology and philosophy has been followed in preparing this project since its inception.

Persuasive Technology

“A persuasive computer is an interactive technology that attempts to change attitudes or behaviours in some way”, (Fogg, 1998).

A recent example of this type of technology is the Samsung and Adidas partnership’s mobile phone called the miCoach(3), this device offers a dedicated fitness button that once connected to a heart rate monitor and a step counter will give information about your heart beat, distance covered and timings, whilst out running or jogging. Instructional programs then define influential routines to improve fitness, speed and endurance.

Another even more popular example is the Wii Fit where Nintendo, the manufacturer clearly promotes the persuasive nature of this new technology by stating in their product definition that “Wii Fit wants to change the way you think about fitness, how you exercise, balance and even how you move”(1) This technologies popularity has even prompted headlines such as The Wii Fit is poised to become the biggest selling home fitness device ever seen(2) by the Telegraph.

Persuasive Technology is clearly becoming evident in modern popular culture and its bearing on this current research should not be underestimated. The ethical dilemmas inherent in this type of research are therefore emphasised. Consultation and guidance is given by the Institutional Review Board at Middlesex University and relevant literature including “Toward an Ethics of Persuasive Technology”, (Berdichevsky & Neuenschwander, 1999) gives clear guidelines regarding essential ethical considerations when researching and designing products or services with a persuasive intent.


 

Orange(8), the international mobile phone operator has been an influential partner in this project from its inception, firstly providing advice and guidance internally, from a variety of different departments and then in practical terms with 2 HTC P6500 PDA’s(4) for testing and research use. This hardware has been invaluable in terms of information gathering and as a research tool. The proliferation and sophistication of mobile devices has allowed this research to aim for future mass market appeal with the continual and fast moving development of the Microsoft Mobile operating systems and Symbian alternatives. Both are playing their part in turning the mobile phone into a digital Swiss Army Knife (Kray & Rohs, 2007) with a multitude of functions and uses. The new Orange, HTC Diamond Touch (pictured above) released in June 2008 would be the ideal device for this type of location based experience.

Augmented Reality can best be described as one of the newest innovations in the technology industry. It superimposes graphics, audio and other sense enhancements from computer screens onto real time environments or camera generated backgrounds. Augmented Reality goes beyond the static graphic technology of television or the cinema where the graphics imposed do not change with the perspective. Augmented reality systems superimpose graphics for every perspective and adjust to every movement of the user's gaze creating a truly astonishing 3D effect. Much of the early research and foundations of this technology should be attributed to Current practitioners including metaio (GmbH)(7) are now concentrating on the use of live video imagery which is digitally processed and "augmented" by the addition of computer-generated graphics. The research behind this technology is prolific and recent relevant studies to this project include ‘Towards Massively Multi-User Augmented Reality on Handheld Devices’ by Wagner et al, (2005) which looks at the introduction of AR to large scale user participation projects. metaio are a Munich based Augmented Reality specialist who have not only implemented a large scale commercial project of AR on mobile devices at the Louvre, Paris, but have also agreed in principle to take part in this ambitious project. Their CEO Dr Thomas Alt has also approved a visit to the UK to demonstrate his company’s remarkable technology when required. The principle designer at Poke London (11) showed an encouraging interest in the project and during consultation gave two invaluable items of fundamental importance for the direction of the project. The first insight gave rise to the possible use of Augmented Reality using a mobile digital device, this inspirational video can be viewed here (9). The second constructive item of advice helped to organise the proposed working method of the project and inspired a breaking down of the experience into 20 key points of delivery, the prototyping web site can be viewed here(10).

Paper Prototyping (Rogers et al, 2007) Paper prototyping was used because of its well known ability to invite people with little-to-no technical background into the design process. Paper prototyping can also help to improve the final product: the prototyping stage is the right time to catch design flaws and change direction, the flexibility and disposability of paper encourages experimentation and speedy iteration. Instead of “deleting” hours worth of HTML layout code or action script in Flash or even laying out graphics and images in Visio you can draw a prototype, recycle the ideas that don’t work, and move on. The young people also enjoyed the cathartic experience of putting their ideas, feelings and thoughts onto paper with the knowledge that they were an integral part of a sophisticated design process that may in some way help, Bobby, Zaire and Effie, the three Western Lowland Gorillas at London Zoo. 

 

 

 

 

Literature Review and Rationale

 

 

Environmental Factors and Gorilla Behaviour

 

On returning from giving a presentation at Disney’s Animal Kingdom in Florida, London Zoo’s Gorilla researcher contacted Middlesex University to inform us that she had presented some of our original findings at the conference and that there was “overwhelming feedback from the conference that visitor’s behaviour within zoos needs to be modified in whatever ways possible; they are often very ‘badly behaved’ and good exhibit design can only go so far to reduce the visitor effect.  And that she would be really keen to see if we could try to modify visitor behaviour – “because I have data to show just how influential it is”. It would appear from recent research including the environmental conclusions reached by Lukas et al, (1999), that a growing body of work is building to enforce the suspicion that the ‘visitor effect” is increasing in complexity and volume and a study by Wells, (2005), a Psychologist, found that high visitor density encouraged significantly more intragroup aggression, stereotypy’s and auto grooming. These findings suggest that gorillas, like many other species of primate, are perhaps over excited by high numbers of visitors. It is however, not within the remit of this research to delve too deeply into the behaviour of Gorillas and despite the importance of a similar study by (Mitchell & Hosey 2005) this research will concentrate mainly on the human factors within the Interaction Design framework.

 

Exhibit Design has provided another rich vein of information for this project and in particular a professional practitioner called John Coe has published numerous papers discussing the complexities and benefits of naturalistic exhibit design. Its ability to immerse and calm the Zoo visitor therefore serves as a model for the aims of this current project.

 

Persuasive Technology, (Fogg, 2003) has also provided a rationale for this current project and papers such as Toscos et al, (2006) have helped to identify the success of this perspective, it would appear that people like being told what to do by technology rather than another person. This perspective also provides an ethical framework for continual re-evaluation of motives and the design research aims.

 

User Centred Design or UCD, (Norman, 1988) is an expansive approach that puts the intended stakeholders of a product or service at the centre of its design and development. It does this by talking directly to the user at key points in the iteration process to make sure the ‘product’ will deliver their requirements. The stages are carried out in an iterative fashion, with the cycle being repeated until the project's usability objectives have been attained. This makes it critical that the participants in these methods accurately reflect the profile of the actual users or stakeholders. Norman outlines four essential activities in a user-centered design projects:

 

·             Requirements gathering - Understanding and specifying the context of use

·             Requirements specification - Specifying the user and organisational requirements

·             Design - Producing designs and prototypes

·             Evaluation - Carrying out user-based assessment of the design space and product usability.

 


Research Design

 

Design Brief - The purposes of this Brief are to:

 

·         Provide a more detailed explanation of the project

·         Define the extent of the area to be covered by the interactive guide.

·         Inaugurate discussion regarding the costs of implementation

·         Create a time frame

·         Build relationships

·         Define partnerships

·         Define operational objectives

·         Set out constraints and opportunities offered by the prototyping web site

·         Outline the design approach together with the physical planning of the project

·         Illustrate and describe the overall layout and planning of the project.

·         Offer speed of delivery and more certainty for the development of the guide for all exhibits

·         Co-ordinate each phase and development stage

·         Co-ordinate partnership meetings

·        Co-ordinate the information gathering

 

Design Concepts - Participants Goals

 

  • See the Gorillas
  • Find out about the Gorillas (conservation messages, facts?)
  • Be told what to do and what not to do, where to go, where not to go etc.
  • View Photographs/Slideshows
  • Photographs enabled for wallpaper use (mobile phones)
  • Changing the wallpaper settings of the device to new available wallpapers (mobile phones)
  • Watch Gorillas in the wild (natural habitat), Videos (various)
  • Pause Videos
  • Pause Guide
  • Play running commentary (various voice over’s, keeper interviews)
  • Pause running commentary
  • Play own background music
  • Pause own background music
  • Contact fellow device users (Instant Messenger, Skype, phone call etc)
  • View 360° panorama from inside Gorilla enclosure
  • View 360° panorama from inside day Gym
  • View 360° panorama from inside sleeping quarters
  • Web Cam/CCTV access when Gorillas not in enclosure/day gym
  • Download/play simple arcade game/s
  • Play Question/Answer quiz and compare scores (group and peer to peer)
  • Take photos
  • Take Videos
  • Send email with attachments (photos, videos, fact sheets etc.)
  • Find friends using GPS
  • Know exact position via map using GPS
  • Pop up facts
  • Pop up information i.e. times of feeding and Zoo events (things to look out for).
  • Ability to give Zoo feedback on experience and guide
  • Consideration for disabilities
  • Multi-Lingual
  • Touch screen interface
  • Have complete control of the guide
  • View FAQ’s – i.e. How long do Gorillas live for?

 Design Specifications/Considerations - Operator/Company: London Zoo/Node Explorer/Orange (Partner Focussed) aims & considerations:

  • Enable personalisation
  • Encourage customer usage of online/available content
  • Deliver conservation messages/education
  • Deliver behaviour instructions/warnings at appropriate times
  • Ameliorate undesirable behaviour: banging on glass, kicking glass, adopting threatening postures, staring into Gorillas eyes, making silly faces etc.
  • Enhance the Zoo visitor experience
  • Alleviate stress and subsequent undesirable behaviour in the primates i.e. R/R, over grooming (pulling fur etc.)
  • Immerse and engage Zoo visitors
  • Update content easily
  • Make content available to mobile phone users with suitable devices

 

Design Development - User Experience Considerations (participant focussed)

  • Availability
  • The download and purchase process
  • The installation process
  • The switching between features/applications
  • The navigation of the multi-media presentation and its content/applications (IM, game, phone, GPS etc.)
  • Device constraints/formats/platforms/hardware
  • Device capabilities/suitability
  • Correct language
  • Disability provision
  • Over sophistication

 

Possible Content and Features

  • Gorilla Wallpaper images
  • Relevant Video
  • Relevant Commentaries
  • Relevant Music/Own music
  • 360° panorama photo’s from inside Gorilla enclosure
  • 360° panorama photo’s from inside day gym
  • 360° panorama photo’s from inside sleeping area
  • Game/s, Quizzes
  • Gorilla Biographies
  • Zoo Keeper interviews
  • Itinerary of feeding times/special event timings/directions etc.
  • Instant Messenger
  • Conservation message/s
  • Educational messages
  • Appropriate instructions/directions
  • Appropriate camera (stills and video)
  • Augmented Reality (in print and in situ)

 

 

Network/Infrastructure Issues (Node, Orange, ZSL, metaio)

 

The list below is regarded as a starting point for discussion, guidance and advice from all relevant technical departments.

 

User Wait Times and User Feedback Considerations

 

  • Is it available via Wi-Fi connection
  • Can presentation be made available from London Zoo web site
  • Should it be made available before entering Zoo
  • What effect does the connection and download process of their selected wallpaper/photo/video have on their overall experience with the product?
  • Does the user have to wait for a connection to be made?
  • Then do they have to wait long for the download?
  • How long does each stage take?
  • What impact does their combined duration have?
  • Do we need to prompt users about what is happening or does it happen quickly?
  • Can we predict approximately how long it will take or is this variable?
  • Do we need to design various options for each situation/exhibit?
  • Is the Interactive Guide managed from one user interface or accessed via individual applications/features
  • Consider File sizes?
  • End product formats – C#, Flash, Symbian etc

 

 

  

  

Conclusions/Summary

 

This Project brief is an attempt to bring together a team of interested parties who could, given the optimal circumstances, create an engaging and immersive experience not only for Zoo visitors but also for many other location based-experiences which extend digital media out into the physical world; across a college and within the context of education, the city streets or even into remote wilderness. Users with mobile displays can move through the world whilst sensors capture information relevant to their current context, (including location) this data is then used to deliver an experience that changes according to where they are, what they are doing, and perhaps even how they are feeling. As a result, the user becomes unchained from their computer, allowing experiences with digital media that are interwoven with the everyday world and potentially available in any place, at any time.

Dynamic interactive technologies clearly have the power to persuade, cajole and influence users and this Interaction Design and animal welfare research offers a unique opportunity to explore and analyse human interaction influenced by digital devices. The brief is certainly not an authority on any of the points raised, but is an attempt to discover how modern digital devices will continue to influence our lives both from an educational perspective and from a persuasive standpoint.

The benefits and opportunities this type of research and development presents the respective partners is considerable and diverse.

Firstly the operational benefits to the Gorilla Kingdom keeping team could be realised through their use of the interactive guide to organize, announce, instruct, educate and deliver important conservation messages. For example, the exhibit volunteers and keeping staff have been observed throughout this research continually asking visitors not to bang on the glass or use flash photography. These are just two amongst many other instructions and pleas aimed at protecting the Gorillas from excessive and undesirable visitor behaviour. This prohibitive aspect will presumably intensify with the advent of a successful Western Lowland Gorilla breeding programme already implemented at the exhibit.

Observations from ethnographic research have also determined language difficulties related to undesirable visitor behaviour and again the interactive guide could afford a solution to this barrier by providing instruction and information in a multitude of languages.

This immersive guide also has the potential to prepare the visitor for each exhibit by detailing the biographies, eccentricities and social/non-social nature of the exhibit residents. The digital guide could therefore attempt to elicit the more positive and sophisticated psychological aspects of human behaviour, including empathy and anthropomorphism, before the zoo visitor embarks on the interactive relationships experienced with the various and diverse captive residents exhibited at London Zoo.

It is also important to highlight the commercial opportunities readily available to London Zoo from the proposed AR interactive guide. A 32% rise in visitor numbers was experienced by Wellington Zoo in New Zealand when Hitlab, an Augmented Reality specialist, used AR in conjunction with mobile phones in a newspaper advertising campaign in 2007. Accordingly, the Augmented Reality proposal from metaio also promotes the inclusion of an improved or additional glossy printed guide with examples of 3D Augmented Reality animals accessible via mobile phones and digital devices, for every AR enabled exhibit. These examples could also be used in future advertising campaigns similar to the highly effective and successful Wellington Zoo example.

The benefits for Orange Plc continue to grow with the introduction of new devices using the Windows Mobile Platform, these devices, including the new HTC Diamond will demonstrate the way forward for the development and future demand of personal mobile communication devices.

This ambitious project seeks to bring together partners from broadcast media, mobile communications and digital design in a unique research project which affords further opportunities for sponsorship and partnerships with other successful multinational businesses, enabling commercial opportunities, highly visible advertising and possible exposure opportunities whilst enjoying an expressed and united concern for the welfare of animals affected by their interaction with zoo visitors.

For example the use of digital (video, messages, instructions etc.) content from the BBC’s Natural History Unit could further enhance the immersive, persuasive and ‘attention grabbing’ qualities of the guide, as would the involvement of a top digital design agency such as Poke, London or E3 Media, working in conjunction with Node and metaio.

Another diverse example could be the partnership of metaio and Orange to produce a pre-installed application which enables the Orange user to experience Augmented Reality examples placed within commercial advertising literature; if you don’t have an Orange device, you can’t experience the AR content.

These examples above are therefore provided as an attempt to generate further interest and sponsorship for the next stage of this project, a pilot study using the Node Explorer development platform together with various Orange devices to prepare the first working prototype of a Gorilla Kingdom specific interactive guide with the official permission and support of London Zoo and Node respectively.

In conclusion then, the aim of this proposal is to bring together a host of internationally recognised entities in a mutually profitable and ethical partnership of research, business development and commerce.  

 

 


References

 

 

Berdichewsky, D. and E. Neuenschwander (1999), ‘Toward an ethics of persuasive. technology’, Communications of the ACM, v.42 n.5, p.51-58, May 1999

 

COE, Jon C. (2007) ZOO 2007; “And the Monkeys Run the Monkey House”. Presented at the ARAZPA Annual Conference, Welllington, New Zealand.

 

Coe, Jon C. “Design and Perception: Making the zoo experience real”. Zoo Biology. 4:197-208 (1985).

 

D. Schmalstieg and D. Wagner, “A handheld augmented reality. museum guide,” in IADIS Mobile Learning 2005.

 

Fogg, B.J. Persuasive Technology: Using Computers

to Change What We Think and Do, Morgan Kaufmann

Publishers, 2003.

 

Lukas, K., Forthman, D., Bloomsmith, M., Marr, M.J., Blanchard-Fields, F., Maple, T. An inter-institutional study of individual and nutritional factors associated with regurgitation and reingestion in captive gorillas. Paper presented at “The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century” conference, Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, IL, May 2000.

 

Millen, David R. (2000): Rapid Ethnography: Time Deepening Strategies for HCI Field Research. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 280-286.

 

Mitchell, H. & Hosey, G. (2005) Zoo Research Guidelines: Studies of the effects of human visitors on zoo animal

behaviour. BIAZA, London.

First published 2005

 

Norman, Donald A. (1988): The Psychology of Everyday Things. New York, Basic Books.

Swiss Army Knife meets Camera Phone: Tool Selection and Interaction using Visual Markers. C. Kray and M. Rohs. (2007) In "Workshop on Mobile Interaction with the Real World at Mobile HCI 2007". Singapore, September 9, 2007.

 

Toscos, T., Faber, A., An, S., & Gandhi, M. P. (2006). Chick clique: Persuasive technology to motivate teenage girls to exercise. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Student Design Competition, 22-27 April 2006, 1873-1878. Retrieved December 13, 2006, from the ACM Digital Library.

 

Wagner, D., Pintaric, T., Ledermann, F., and Schmalstieg, D., “Towards Massively Multi-User Augmented Reality on Handheld Devices”, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Pervasive Computing, 2005

 

Weiser, M., Gold, R., Brown, J.S. (1988) The Origins of ubiquitous computing research at PARC in the late 80s. IBM Systems Journal, 38, 4, pp. 693-696, 1999.

 

Wells, D.L.  (2005).  A note on the effect of zoo visitors on the behaviour and welfare of captive gorillas.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science 93, 13-17

 

 

 

Internet References

 

 

 

1. http://www.nintendo.com/wiifit/en/#/home/

2. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1941532/Wii-fit-on-course-to-become-best-selling-exercise-trend-of-all-time.html

3. http://micoach.samsungmobile.com/

4. http://www.business.orange.co.uk/servlet/Satellite?pagename=Business&c=OUKDevice&cid=1044137071670

5. http://www.nodeexplore.com/

6. http://www.ubiq.com/hypertext/weiser/acmfuture2endnote.htm

7. http://www.metaio.com/

8. http://www.orange.com/en_EN/group/

9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RsZTbIjLHNA

10. http://www.uknetsupport.co.uk/GorillaKingdom.htm

11. http://www.pokelondon.com/

 

 

APPENDICES

 

 

WORKING METHOD (Pre-Design Research)

 

User Focus: Interactive Guide for the Zoo/Exhibit Visitor - Venue: Gorilla Kingdom, London Zoo

 

Stage 1

 

Paper Prototyping for an interactive multi-media presentation was designed for various hand held device’s, the primary participants or stakeholders were 5 young people with ages ranging from 10 through to 14 years of age including 3 boys, 10, 11 and 12 and 2 girls 13 and 14.

Their purpose was to provide an insight into their thoughts and ideas and exactly what they required from an interactive guide to necessitate an exciting and compelling experience.

 

 

Stage 2 (11)

 

A prototyping web site is under construction to enable all stakeholders and partners to observe the iteration process and the development of the prototypes. The site has been built to enable the process of information gathering for each strategic point within each area or zone. It is important to note that these points and zones are not fixed in anyway and are adaptable to change and refinement. Each page has a designated area where all relevant information is collected for each respective partner.

 

Stage 3

 

A pilot study using the Node Explorer development platform together with various Orange devices to prepare the first working prototype of a Gorilla Kingdom specific interactive guide.

 

Results & Analysis

 

 

Participant 1: 10 year old boy

 

Written Stick-It Observations (Iterations 2 & 3)

 

I am really amazed by the amphitheatre. The Ferret and the Hawk: he flew right over my head and so close to my face.

The enclosure is a bit small. They have got the Gorilla sounds outside of the Gorilla enclosure. They also have jungle sounds.

They have different interactive activities but they don’t have enough and they have different climbing activities as well.

They also have a place where little kids can play and the area around the kid’s area is soft and bouncy.

They also have different types of animals as well as the Gorilla Kingdom, for example birds and different Monkeys.

They also have an open space for the Gorillas to run around in and play, there are also reading parts and questions to ask you and you are tempted to try it out.

They also have both an inside Gym and an outside enclosure. There’s also Lizards and other animals. The Gorillas also have tunnels for them to go through

I think that it’s really sad that the Gorillas have lots of visitors because they probably want to be on their own.

I think that all the sound made by the people is quite disturbing to the gorillas. Effie, one of the Gorillas is quite calm and OK about having visitors.

Notes

Welcome to My Zoo Book

The Amphitheatre is Amazing

The Vulture enclosure is amazing and fascinating

I think having tunnels for the Gorillas is a really good idea. One of the interactive challenges doesn’t work so that’s a bit disappointing.

I think there should be more interactive things to do than reading because kids like to do more playful things than reading.

But I do think reading is still good because adults are more into reading than playing activities so it would suit the adults.

I still think the same about all the animals, lovely to see them but sad that they’re in a small area.

Another lemur looked right into my eyes.

 

 

Participant 2: 12 year old boy

 

Written Stick-It Observations (Iterations 2 & 3)

 

Iteration 2

Liked flying show because Hawk got close to you, like vultures and Gorilla models.

Liked tracking bit and listening bit and bird enclosure, info good, like animals.

Like all interaction stuff. Gorillas look sad.

Iteration 3

U R now entering bird world (hear jungle sounds)(Birds with info pop ups) U’ve left bird world.

If you move device near picture it gives u info. Capability to teach you. If a Gorilla is outside it says which one it is.

If you take a picture of a gorilla it tells you which one it is. Film of Gorilla in action pop ups – All the films on TV are always available.

If u take a picture of any animal it tells you things about it. Also at the start the device has a large selection of songs.

Instant messenger and web cam – When leaving you get quiz and conservation facts. Then you get to download gorilla pictures.

U can now see the Gorilla enclosure. (see Gorilla info) – Tree house high up with binoculars. Hill is hollow so you can see 360°.

Notes

I liked the Rainforest cos it felt as if I’m there. It felt you should be quite.

 

Participant 3: 11 year old boy:

 

Written Stick-It Observations (Iterations 2 & 3)

Iteration 2 & 3

‘Gorilla Kingdom’

Gorilla tracking boring

Weighing, climbing & knuckle walking are fun and interactive.

Bird enclosure makes watching the birds much better and easier to take pictures or look and admire.

The Gorilla path above the corridor is amazing to look at and very clever.

Enclosure is confusing since there aren’t any Gorillas there but lots of signs about them.

Gorillas look calm and happy in the gym.

How long is the life span of a Gorilla?

Harrier Hawks impressive.

Amphitheatre show amazing – Hawk flies really close and amazing.

Notes

Animals
I liked the Vultures which looked like classic cartoon, evil Vultures. The Harrier Hawks looked like they could be fast and deadly.

Rainforest
I feel warm and comfy like I should be quite and always wanting to see more. The monkeys are amazing!!! The piranhas are really scary with small vicious teeth. My favourite animal was the Sloth because it was really cute and we watched it eat some brown bread.

Amphitheatre Show
The Ferrets were well trained and very fast. The hawk was amazing and well trained


Participant 4: 13 year old girl

Written Stick-It Observations (Iterations 2 & 3) 

Iteration 2

 

 

Welcome to Gorilla Kingdom

Gorillas

Ring Tailed Lemurs

Take the nature trail to the right – can you see the different things -

Voice commentating about all the different animals – pictures pop up on screen – writing about where based

Interactive game of everything they have learnt – True false game

Diana Monkeys

Eastern Black and White Colobus

Diet

Habitat etc.

Ornate Monitor

White Naped Mangaby

Iteration 3

Other Languages

Show a video

See Wild Gorillas via web cam

Little ones (videos) of Gorillas

While walking through give instructions, pics and videos

3D pictures of Day Gym

Have it (guide) reading to you as well as reading yourself

Notes

The amphitheatre was good because they let the animals  into the audience so we can have a close look

Bird Cages – Vultures etc. can see up close

Detail -

Nice to see monkeys etc.

 


Participant 5: 14 year old girl (Exemplar)

Written Stick-It Observations (Iterations 2 & 3)

 

Iteration 2

Exciting colourful starter page

 

WELCOME TO THE ZOO

 

How many different species here

 

Info pop up

 

How old is it

 

Keep it all bright and colourful

Times telling you ten minutes before show in amphitheatre or animal feeding happens

Map option always available

(GPS?)

Can click on a part of the Zoo map for information and short film clips of what animal/s is there

Pop Up

 

GORILLA ENCLOSURE

 

Short film of the Gorillas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gorilla Facts

 

- Lifespan etc

Introduction to the Gorillas

 

Name

Age

Film

 

Put in earphones for commentary on this Gorilla

Pictures of all the different monkey species in the enclosure

 

Click on one picture for information, video clip

 

Hear the noises the animals make

 

Pop up facts

 

Things to look out for

(When you finish the enclosure)

 

MONKEY QUIZ

 

Send your results to your friends at the Zoo

WHAT MONKEY (GORILLA?)

WOULD YOU BE?

 

Questions to see which Monkey you are most like and a picture and info for that

Monkey.

 

Can send it to your friends at the Zoo (or email it home)

Pop up – Top Tips and things to look out for

 

Should have a film of a Gorilla - with headphones and then a special effects film of the Gorillas skeleton as it moves – and what each bit is for (commentary telling you)

Are you Gorilla friendly?

 

Quiz

Ask about how often they fly (carbon footprint) and things and suggest ways to make them more Gorilla friendly

Pop up – Gorilla Problems!

Charity Info!

Match the Gorilla with it’s correct name/ the sound it makes quiz

 

Pop up telling people to look up at the bridge because its easy to miss. The one with the Gorilla on – picture here

Info about their behaviour – why do they fight?

 

Show people videos of them in the wild

Game (Arcade Style)– either one as you leave

Should have a game at the end of each enclosure and your score is added up to a total at the end which you can compare with your friends

104 pts you are a Tiger

78 pts you are a Monkey

41 pts you are a Warthog

12 pts you are a Cockroach

Iteration 3 (additions)

§         360° Panorama of the inside of the Enclosure

§         Keep an eye out for these birds (Aviary)

§         Keeper Video Interview (video with sound)

§         (of screen)

§         Keeper Interview

§         Sound only with video of our Gorillas

§         (of screen)

§         Slide Show (4 mins)

§         360° Panorama of Day Gym

§         Murdered Gorillas Video – Conservation Message (4 mins)

§         Gorilla Vs Gorilla video – Natural Habitat (4 mins)

§         Other Languages

§         Tree Houses – Binoculars

§         Rope bridges so its fun for kids

§         Ladders Up

§         Underground Tubing

Notes

Stuff in the Amphitheatre was really good – enthusiastic and fun

 

Amazing variety of birds of prey, but small enclosures

 

The pit in the rainforest was amazing, it was so exciting to be that close to the animals and it felt really real because it was mud and trees and there was nothing between the animals and us

 

If the Gorillas were outside I think it would be as good as the rainforest one

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iteration 1 Rapid Ethnographic, Millen, (2000) Video Study (20 minutes)

 

 Please see accompanying disk or memory stick

 

  

 

Iteration 2 Participant Feedback, Personal Impressions - Good/Bad

 

 

 

 

Iteration 3 Followed by Group Collaboration (Brainstorm)

 

 

The Customer Corridor Page of the Gorilla Kingdom Enclosure click the image below to proceed